Mac中安装和使用MacPorts软件包管理系统教程

本教程我们来学习学习Mac中的软件包管理系统MacPorts,这样可以简化Mac OS X和Darwin操作系统上软件的安装。MacPorts是一个自由免费的软件,我们可以放心的使用它。

MacPorts简介

MacPorts,曾经叫做DarwinPorts,是一个软件包管理系统,用来简化Mac OS X和Darwin操作系统上软件的安装。它是一个用来简化自由软件/开放源代码软件的安装的自由/开放源代码项目,与Fink和BSD类ports套件的目标和功能类似。跟BSD中的ports道理一样。MacPorts就像apt-get、yum一样,可以快速安装些软件。

MacPorts下载与安装

一.通过(.pkg)安装: Mac OS X Package (.pkg) Installer

访问官方网站: http://www.macports.org/install.php
http://distfiles.macports.org/MacPorts/MacPorts-2.1.1-10.7-Lion.pkg

二.通过(Source)安装MacPorts:Source Installation

1.cd到Downloads/目录下wget下载 MacPorts-2.1.1.tar.gz
输入: wget https://distfiles.macports.org/MacPorts/MacPorts-2.1.1.tar.gz

2.解压 MacPorts-2.1.1.tar.gz 输入: tar zxvf MacPorts-2.1.1.tar.gz (tar jxvf MacPorts2.1.1.tar.bz2)

3.cd到解压到的目录MacPorts-2.1.1输入: ./configure && make && sudo make install 安装
中间提示输入密码完成安装!

7.然后将/opt/local/bin和/opt/local/sbin添加到$PATH搜索路径中
编辑/etc/profile文件 $ sudo vim /etc/profile (特许编辑,强制保存退出 wq!)文件最后加上下面两句

export PATH=/opt/local/bin:$PATH
export PATH=/opt/local/sbin:$PATH

MacPorts使用

1.Mac Port中第三方软件下载包存放的默认路径是:/opt/local/var/macports/distfiles/
为了提高安装速度,可以在安装新port时直接将此目录下的文件拷贝到新的Mac Port相同的目录中就可以避免Port去网上下载。

2.使用Mac Port前应该首先更新Port的index
输入: $ sudo port -v selfupdate (强烈推荐第一次运行的时候使用-v参数,显示详细的更新过程)

3.查看Mac Port中当前可用的软件包及其版本 输入: $ port list

4.查看有更新的软件以及版本 输入: $ port outdated

5.升级可以更新的软件 输入: $ sudo port upgrade outdated

6.在Mac Port搜索需要安装的软件包 输入: $ port search maven

HuiMinmatoMacBook-Pro:Downloads zikercn$ port search maven
maven @1.0.2 (java, devel)
stub port, use maven1 instead

maven-ant-tasks @2.1.3 (devel, java)
Use many of Maven's artifact handling features from Ant.

maven1 @1.1 (java, devel)
A java-based build and project management environment.

maven2 @2.2.1 (java, devel)
A java-based build and project management environment.

maven3 @3.0.4 (java, devel)
A java-based build and project management environment.

maven_select @0.3 (sysutils)
common files for selecting default Maven version

Found 6 ports.

7.搜索到需要安装的软件包之后,如何查看具体的软件包的内容和说明
输入: $ port info maven3

maven3 @3.0.4 (java, devel)

Description: Maven is a Java project management and project
comprehension tool. Maven is based on the concept of a
project object model (POM) in that all the artifacts
produced by Maven are a result of consulting a well
defined model for your project.Builds, documentation,
source metrics, and source cross-references are all
controlled by your POM. Maven 3 aims to ensure backward
compatibility with Maven 2, improve usability, increase
performance, allow safe embedding, and pave the way to
implement many highly demanded features.
Homepage: http://maven.apache.org/

Build Dependencies: kaffe
Runtime Dependencies: maven_select
Platforms: darwin
License: unknown
Maintainers: [email protected], [email protected]

8.查看即将安装的或者已经安装的软件包的依赖关系
输入: $ port deps maven3

Full Name: maven3 @3.0.4_0
Build Dependencies: kaffe
Runtime Dependencies: maven_select

9. 查看安装时允许客户定制的参数 输入: $ port variants maven3

maven3 has no variants

10.查看了软件包的内容和说明,并确认确实要安装,则输入: $ sudo port install maven3

To make maven 3.0.4 the default, please run
sudo port select --set maven maven3

---> Cleaning maven3
---> Updating database of binaries: 100.0%
---> Scanning binaries for linking errors: 100.0%
---> No broken files found.

11. 卸载已经用Mac Port安装的软件 输入: $ sudo port uninstall maven3

---> Deactivating maven3 @3.0.4_0
---> Cleaning maven3
---> Uninstalling maven3 @3.0.4_0
---> Cleaning maven3

MacPorts卸载删除

1.卸载原有的MacPorts(如果你没有安装,直接跳过这一步,输入: $ port version 查看)
#原版使用MacPorts安装过的软件在/opt/local目录下,删除之前最好查看下,心里有个数.

sudo port -f uninstall installed
sudo rm -rf [/加下面的每条]
/opt/local
/Applications/DarwinPorts
/Applications/MacPorts
/Library/LaunchDaemons/org.macports.*
/Library/Receipts/DarwinPorts*.pkg
/Library/Receipts/MacPorts*.pkg
/Library/StartupItems/DarwinPortsStartup
/Library/Tcl/darwinports1.0
/Library/Tcl/macports1.0
~/.macports

分类:默认分类 时间:2015-03-05 人气:10
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